Ancient Egypt - Ancient Egypt - The Middle Kingdom (1938–c. Either way, this quiz on Spanish words for animals is for you. The term Middle Kingdom is also used for the XII dynasty of ancient Egypt (see The Old and Middle Kingdoms under Egypt). The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.The concept of a "Second Intermediate Period" was coined in 1942 by German Egyptologist Hanns Stock.. Ennead: Hall Of Judgment/Hall of Justicet: Hatshepsut: Lower Egypt: Middle Kingdom: Necropolis: Nefertari Merytnmut:  By the end of the First Intermediate Period, some nomarchs ruled their nomes as minor potentates, such as the nomarch Nehry of Hermopolis, who dated inscriptions by his own regnal year. The amount of wooden tomb models decreased drastically, and they were replaced by small faience models of food. His name was Hellenized by later Greek historians as Sesostris, a name which was then given to a conflation of Senusret and several New Kingdom warrior pharaohs. Native Coptic Egyptian population carried on using the old name related to north – Tsakhit (Coptic: ⲧⲥⲁϦⲏⲧ) or Psanamhit (Coptic: ⲡⲥⲁⲛⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ) "Northern part", …   After this, Senusret sent one more campaign in his 19th year, but turned back due to abnormally low Nile levels, which endangered his ships. Home; History; Monuments; Language; Visual Index; World Wide; About; Sidebar.  At some point during the 13th Dynasty, Xois and Avaris began governing themselves, the rulers of Xois being the Fourteenth Dynasty, and the Asiatic rulers of Avaris being the Hyksos of the Fifteenth Dynasty. Trading, arts and literature all flourished in the Middle Kingdom.  Private tombs, such as those found in Thebes, usually consisted of a long passage cut into rock, with a small chamber at the end. noun. Senusret III was a warrior-king, often taking to the field himself.  Old Kingdom texts served mainly to maintain the divine cults, preserve souls in the afterlife, and document accounts for practical uses in daily life.  The personnel of these forts were charged to send frequent reports to the capital on the movements and activities of the local Medjay natives, some of which survive, revealing how tightly the Egyptians intended to control the southern border.  After toppling the last rulers of the Tenth Dynasty, Mentuhotep began consolidating his power over all of Egypt, a process which he finished by his 39th regnal year.  Like Mentuhotep II, Amenemhet bolstered his claim to authority with propaganda. Meaning of Middle Kingdom. He also restored Egyptian hegemony over the Sinai region, which had been lost to Egypt since the end of the Old Kingdom. It is best known as the period when the Hyksos people of West Asia made their appearance in Egypt and … 'The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History', (4th edition, 1993), Dupuy & Dupuy.  Neferhotep I was even recognized as the suzerain of the ruler of Byblos, indicating that the Thirteenth Dynasty was able to retain much of the power of the Twelfth Dynasty, at least up to his reign.  The duration of his reign remains something of an open question. The first king was Narmer (also known as Menes) who established a central government after uniting the country, probably by military means. Often, these men are wearing a "wide cloak" that reduces the body of the figure to a simple block-like shape. The heavy tripartite wig frames the broad face and passes behind the ears, thus giving the impression of forcing them forward. The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt: The Middle Empire also called the Middle Kingdom ( 2050 – 1750 B.C.) , The reign of Amenemhat II has been often characterized as largely peaceful, but records of his genut, or daybooks, have cast doubt on that assessment. Mentuhotep II was part of Dynasty XI (11), which ruled Upper Egypt from the city of Thebes. The kings of the Eleventh Dynasty ruled from Thebes and the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty ruled from el-Lisht.  Inscriptions left by one Nehry, the Haty-a of Hermopolis, suggest that he was attacked at a place called Shedyet-sha by the forces of the reigning king, but his forces prevailed. During this time, the dominant religion of Egypt was the cult of Osiris. 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