Then, you titrate any excess HCl with a standardized solution of KOH. Keeping this in consideration, how is back titration used in real life? Then some amount of the standard titrant will react with the analyte, and the excess of it remains in the sample. 2- Insoluble or slightly soluble substances, e.g. Volumetric analysis originated in late 18th-century France. Back Titration Is Used For: 1- Volatile substances, e.g., NH 3 . Secondly, CaCO3 is a weak base so it is difficult to determine the end point of the reaction if titrated directly. 1.25 g of crushed limestone was added to 50.0 cm3 of 1.00 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid (an excess). one of the reactants is volatile and some might escape during the titration (e.g., NH₃) the analyte is an insoluble salt (e.g., CaCO₃) From the diagram, we can start with the titration first and determine the amount of NaOH used. Titration is the process in which one solution is added to another solution such that it reacts under conditions in which the added volume may be accurately measured. 2. In titration, you need the reaction to be able to reach a definite endpoint at practically the same moment as you have reached the stoichiometric equivalence point. 30.0 cm3 were needed to reach the end-point of the indicator. Back titration (BT) can be used as a time-saving alternative for measuring BN. A back titration is a form of titraiton in which an excess of standard reagent is added and then the reverse of the titration is carried out. Still have questions? Back titrations are used when: one of the reactants is volatile, for example ammonia. Redox titration is based on an oxidation-reduction reaction between the titrant and the analyte. In titration, you need the reaction to be able to reach a definite endpoint at practically the same moment as you have reached the stoichiometric equivalence point. What is Back Titration? Question: A 50 mL volume of 0.1M nitric acid is mixed with 60mL of 0.1M calcium hydroxide solution. Will this recipe make diamonds ? Updated October 07, 2019. back … A back titration is a form of titraiton in which an excess of standard reagent is added and then the reverse of the titration is carried out. Does the difficulty of pronouncing a chemical’s name really follow the trend: the easier, the less harmful, and the harder, the more harmful? Titration Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 364; No headers. when it involves volatile substances such as ammonia and iodine, where inaccuracy arises due to loss of substance during titration. In a back-titration, we add an excess amount of the standard titrant to the analyte. Back Titration It is a chemical process in which a surplus quantity of the standard titrant is dropped into the analyte. In chemistry, back titration is a technique used to determine the strength of an analyte through the addition of a known molar concentration of excess reagent. 2. We can also calculate the total amount of H 2 SO 4 used. Calculate The Number Of Moles Of Acid (H+ ) In 33.6 ML Of (a) 0.10 M HCl And (b) 0.10 M H2SO4. Titration is a process or method to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, in which a known reagent is added to a solution of unknown concentration. 1. Redox Titration is a laboratory method of determining the concentration of a given analyte by causing a redox reaction between the titrant and the analyte. In back titration we use two reagents - one, that reacts with the original sample (lets call it A), and second (lets call it B), that reacts with the first reagent. Then you titrate the excess reactant. A back titration is a titration method where the concentration of an analyte is determined by reacting it with a known amount of excess reagent. 3. A back titration may also be called an indirect titration. Back Titration A back titration is a titration method where the concentration of an analyte is determined by reacting it with a known amount of excess reagent . The remaining excess reagent is then titrated with another, second reagent. Titration, process of chemical analysis in which the quantity of some constituent of a sample is determined by adding to the measured sample an exactly known quantity of another substance with which the desired constituent reacts in a definite, known proportion. There is a chemical reaction between these compounds. Back Titration Technique This reaction cannot be used directly to titrate the CaCO 3 because it is very slow when the reaction is close to completion (endpoint). Why phenolphthalein is used in titration. Titration is the process in which one solution is added to another solution such that it reacts under conditions in which the added volume may be accurately measured. What Is A “back-titration”? Contributors; A titration is a volumetric technique in which a solution of one reactant (the titrant) is added to a solution of a second reactant (the "analyte") until the equivalence point is reached. Titration is an analytical method involving two … Indicators are chosen based on pH at the equivalence point of the two reagents. At the endpoint of the titration, the acid has been neutralized by the base. Sodium hydroxide solution of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3 was added from a burette. e.g. solution to a weighted amount of a sample and then the excess unreacted std. Titration Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 364; No headers. Back titrations are used when: - one of the reactants is volatile, for example ammonia. These types of titrations sometimes require the use of a potentiometer or a redox indicator. Copyright 2020 FindAnyAnswer All rights reserved. The technique of back titration is used when the unknown compound cannot be dissolved in water for normal titration. Why Is A Back Titration Necessary In This Experiment? In back titration you find the concentration of a species by reacting it with an excess of another reactant of known concentration. Titration is an important technique in the field of analytical chemistry and is sometimes referred to as volumetric analysis. Then you titrate the excess reactant. solution is determined by titration with another std. This is used as opposed to standard volumetric titration when the substance being analyzed is either too weak to give a valid reaction, or too slow. e.g. How much does a 4x8 sheet of Hardie board cost? Titration is an important technique in the field of analytical chemistry and is sometimes referred to as volumetric analysis. solution. Back titration is also useful when trying to work out the amount of an acid or base in a non-soluble solid. Back titration. The technique of back titration is used when the unknown compound cannot be dissolved in water for normal titration. How do we proceed? We add precisely measured amount of reagent A to sample and once the reaction ends we titrate excess reagent A left with reagent B. In a back titration, you add an excess of standard titrant to the analyte, and then you titrate the excess titrant to determine how much is in excess. Back titration. The medical field has very real-life applications of titration. when it involves solid substances such as CaCO 3 , where the end-point is difficult to detect. Back titration is an analytical chemistry technique which allows the user to find the concentration of a reactant of unknown concentration by reacting it with an excess volume of another reactant of known concentration. A back titration is used when it is diffucult to find an endpoint in a normal titration (for example, if the analyte is not very soluble in water). Calculate The Number Of Moles Of Acid (H+ ) In 33.6 ML Of (a) 0.10 M HCl And (b) 0.10 M H2SO4. We can then use back titration to determine the amount of substance, where an excess known amount of reagent is reacted with this substance, then the remaining amount of reagent is determined with another reaction via titration. It is often preferable to do a back titration if. My indicator will be very dark and my calculations won't be very accurate. A back titration is performed when the reactant reacts too slowly for a normal titration to work, and/or if the reactant is insoluble. A back titration is performed when the reactant reacts too slowly for a normal titration to work, and/or if the reactant is insoluble. The remaining excess reagent is then titrated with another, second reagent. Click to see full answer Moreover, what is a back titration? What Is A “back-titration”? Back reactions; General procedure; Uses of back-titration Calculate analyte concentrations given experimental data from a back titration. Secondly, CaCO3 is a weak base so it is difficult to determine the end point of the reaction if titrated directly. Why Is A Back Titration Necessary In This Experiment? solution. The amount of reagent B is chosen in such a way that an excess remains after its interaction with analyte A. What is the maximum value of an unsigned integer? A back titration is necessary in situations where the reaction you are using to analyse the unknown substance is too slow to respond in a normal titration. Iodate(V )  ions react with sulfite ions in acidic solution at pH 5 as shown  For example, you may want to determine the concentration of a base, but the endpoint is not sharp enough for a precise titration. Some examples will help you understand what I mean. In contrast to direct titrations, where analyte A directly reacts with titrant T, back-titrations are a subcategory of indirect titrations.Indirect titrations are used when, for example, no suitable sensor is available or the reaction is too slow for a practical direct titration. Super Bowl schedule change could benefit Bucs, 5 killed, including pregnant woman, in Indiana shooting, Ex-Trump aide recalls morbid departure ceremony, Rodgers on 4th-down FG call: 'Wasn't my decision', Fauci stars in the White House's new COVID-19 PSA, GOP resistance to impeachment trial grows, $2M enough for 'The Marksman' to top box office, Watch: UCLA gymnast stuns in powerful routine, Scaramucci to Biden: 'Now is not the time to raise taxes', Biden to reinstate travel restrictions Trump rescinded, Nancy Lieberman could have been on Kobe's helicopter, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back_titration. The equivalence point is the point at which titrant has been added in exactly the right quantity to react stoichiometrically with the analyten (when moles of titrant = moles of analyte). These types of titrations sometimes require the use of a potentiometer or a redox indicator. The equivalence point is when the number of moles of NaOH added equals the number of moles of HCl remaining after the reaction with the tablet. e.g. HCl is the H + (aq) source; NaOH is the OH – (aq) source. If the solid can react with an acid it may do so fairly slowly, so that ordinary methods of titration cannot conveniently be used. The remaining excess reagent is then titrated with another, second reagent. What is Back Titration A back titration is a titration method used to determine the concentration of an unknown using an excess amount of a compound with a known concentration. Back reactions; General procedure; Uses of back-titration Back titrations are used when: - one of the reactants is volatile, for example ammonia. Back Titration Technique This reaction cannot be used directly to titrate the CaCO 3 because it is very slow when the reaction is close to completion (endpoint). Does Hermione die in Harry Potter and the cursed child? Sometimes the reaction involves solids or gaseous products, so direct titration is not feasible or difficult to measure. The process is usually carried out by gradually adding a standard solution (i.e., a solution of known concentration) of … In such situations we can often use a technique called back titration. You begin by dissolving the chalk in 50.00 mL of 0.200 M HCl. I can use a solution of NaOH to get back to the endpoint, and calculate an accurate concentration from the known concentrations of my HCl and NaOH solutions. How long does IKEA click and collect take? What cars have the most expensive catalytic converters? In back titration we use two reagents - one, that reacts with the original sample (lets call it A), and second (lets call it B), that reacts with the first reagent. Titration is the slow addition of one solution of a known concentration (called a titrant) to a known volume of another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction reaches neutralization, which is often indicated by a color change. Back titrations are usually used when a direct titration is not possible. You are asked to determine the mass of calcium carbonate in a 0.125 g stick of chalk. For example, you may want to determine the concentration of a base, but the endpoint is … Under these circumstances, the solid … During a back-titration, an exact volume of reagent B is added to the analyte A. Reagent B is usually a common titrant itself. The back titration is used mainly in cases where the titration reaction of the direct titration is too slow or direct indication of the equivalence point is unsatisfactory. Here, we can determine this remaining amount of … 3. When backing up which side should you back towards? Back Titration: It includes the addition of an excess of a std. What is the purpose of a blank titration? Asked By: Esperanto Occhio | Last Updated: 8th March, 2020, In the case of acid/base reactions, an indicator is chosen which changes color as this occurs, allowing. The resulting mixture is then titrated, taking into account the molarity of the excess that was added. IO3 – + 3SO3 2– ---> I– + 3SO4 2–? Back titrations are used when: one of the reactants is volatile, for example ammonia. For example, for calcium content determination using reagents EDTA (A) and ZnSO 4 (B) Back Titration . Back titration was required for two reasons. Some of you have told me that Back titration is quite confusing and challenging and here is a step-by-step guide for a sample Back titration problem. This excess is then titrated with titrant T. A blank titration is done without the analyte present to check for possible sources of error in the "blank" solution. In back titration you find the concentration of a species by reacting it with an excess of another reactant of known concentration. Under these circumstances, the solid can be made to react with an excess of acid. Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a qualitative analysis technique that can be used to calculate the concentration of a given analyte in a mixture. Take the following experiment as an example for calculation. So, when do we need back titrations? A back titration is a titration method where the concentration of an analyte is determined by reacting it with a known amount of excess reagent. Found it on the deep web? - an acid or a base is an insoluble salt, for example calcium carbonate - a particular reaction is too slow - direct titration would involve a weak acid - weak base titration (the end-point of this type of direct titration is very difficult to observe) Back titration is an analytical chemistry technique that allows the user to find the concentration of a reactant of unknown concentration by reacting it with an excess volume of another reactant of known concentration. Back titration is an analytical chemistry technique which allows the user to find the concentration of a reactant of unknown concentration by reacting it with an excess volume of another reactant of known concentration. We can then calculate the percentage of calcium carbonate in the sample. The remaining acid may then be titrated in the usual manner. For example, let's say I'm doing a titration with HCl and accidentally add too much. Back Titration: It includes the addition of an excess of a std. Titration is the slow addition of one solution of a known concentration (called a titrant) to a known volume of another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction reaches neutralization, which is … when it involves volatile substances such as ammonia and iodine, where inaccuracy arises due to loss of substance during titration. Firstly, CaCO3 tablets are poorly water-soluble but dissolve rapidly in acid. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. If the solid can react with an acid it may do so fairly slowly, so that ordinary methods of titration cannot conveniently be used. Redox Titration is a laboratory method of determining the concentration of a given analyte by causing a redox reaction between the titrant and the analyte. That is, a user needs to find the concentration of a reactant of a given unknown concentration by reacting it with an excess volume of another reactant of a known concentration. For example, you may want to determine the concentration of a base, but the endpoint is not sharp enough for a precise titration. In back titration you find the concentration of a species by reacting it with an excess of another reactant of known concentration. The resulting mixture is then titrated back, taking into account the molarity of the excess which was added. In back titration, a known excess of one reagent A is allowed to react with an unknown amount of B. What is a back-titration? Calculate The Number Of Moles Of Base Equivalents In: A) 675 Mg CaCO3 B) 135 Mg Mg(OH)2 - Base Equivalents = Number Of Moles Of Acid (H+ ) Consumed 4. The resulting mixture is then titrated back, taking into account the molarity of the excess which was added. Then using mole ratio from reaction 2, we can work backwards (hence the name back titration) and determine the amount of H 2 SO 4 that reacts with NaOH. Back titration is a technique which can be used in the analysis of solids that are insoluble, or only partly soluble in water. What are the benefits of back extensions? when it involves solid substances such as CaCO3, where the end-point is difficult to detect. This is called back titration. Back titration is an analytical chemistry technique that allows the user to find the concentration of a reactant of unknown concentration by reacting it with an excess volume of another reactant of known concentration. The compound can however react with an acid, neutralising some of it. It is used in quantitative analytical chemistry to determine an unknown concentration of an identified analyte. The compound can however react with an acid, neutralising some of it. Some examples will help you understand what I mean. Back titration is an analytical chemistry technique that allows the user to find the concentration of a reactant of unknown concentration by reacting it with an excess volume of another reactant of known concentration. Back titration is also referred to as indirect titration. 2- Insoluble or … - an acid or a base is an insoluble salt, for example calcium carbonate - a particular reaction is too slow - direct titration would involve a weak acid - weak base titration (the end-point of this type of direct titration is very difficult to observe) Firstly, CaCO3 tablets are poorly water-soluble but dissolve rapidly in acid. In a sample buffer solution as the strength of the weak base decreases (as pKb increases) what happens to the strength of the conjugate acid. For example, you may want to determine the concentration of a base, but the endpoint is not sharp enough for a precise titration. What is the difference between titrant and Titrand? Back Titration Is Used For: 1- Volatile substances, e.g., NH 3 . Back titration is a titration done in reverse; instead of titrating the original sample, a known excess of standard reagent is added to the solution, and the excess is titrated. In back titration you find the concentration of a species by reacting it with an excess of another reactant of known concentration. The mixture was left until all bubbling stopped and was then made up carefully to 250 cm3 with pure water. The remaining acid may then be titrated in the usual manner. What is the difference between a direct titration and a back titration? The resulting mixture is then titrated, taking into account the molarity of the excess that was added. Redox titration is based on an oxidation-reduction reaction between the titrant and the analyte. Then you titrate the excess reactant. Back titration: Back titration is a titration done in reverse- instead of titrating the original sample, a known excess of standard reagent is added to the solution, and the excess is titrated. Thank you for letting me know your biggest challenges for now and sending me your questions! Titration, process of chemical analysis in which the quantity of some constituent of a sample is determined by adding to the measured sample an exactly known quantity of another substance with which the desired constituent reacts in a definite, known proportion. solution to a weighted amount of a sample and then the excess unreacted std. Calculate The Number Of Moles Of Base Equivalents In: A) 675 Mg CaCO3 B) 135 Mg Mg(OH)2 - Base Equivalents = Number Of Moles Of Acid (H+ ) Consumed 4. Back titration was required for two reasons. solution is determined by titration with another std. Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a qualitative analysis technique that can be used to calculate the concentration of a given analyte in a mixture. Pharmacists use titration in their field. How do we proceed? Titration is a delicate procedure that entails patience and careful observation, and it is important to choose indicators properly. e.g. The resulting mixture is then titrated, taking into account the molarity of the excess that was added. The amount of unreacted A is then determined by titration with a reagen… What is the ph of a 0.080 M solution of the weak base pyridine (C5H5N; Kb=1.7x10^-9)? Carefully measured amounts of the reagent are added until a change in color or electrical measurement occurs. Is a mortgage backed security an asset backed security? When you overshoot the indicator and use another chemical to go back. In 1828, the French chemist Gay-Lussac first used titre as a verb (titrer), meaning "to determine the concentration of a substance in a given sample". If you want to find out how much carbonate is in a mixture, say calcium carbonate from crushed coral and shells in beach sand. Get your answers by asking now. What is Back Titration It is basically, an analytical technique in chemistry, which is performed backwards in the method. Back titrations are usually used when a direct titration is not possible. The titration technique depends on the indication of the endpoint to determine the concentration of the analyte (in this case, the amount of basic constituents) within a sample. Similarly, why is back titration more accurate? Then you titrate the excess reactant. A chemical reaction occurs between some quantity of the standard titrant and the analyte while the excessive quantity is measured by back-titration. Back Titration: Titrations are a volumetric form of chemical analysis based upon the measure of how much standard solution, or titrant, of known concentration is … Back-titration meaning A form of titration in which an excess of standard reagent is added and then the reverse of the normal titration is carried out. It is also used to measure glucose levels in the blood for those with diabetes. Back titration is a technique which can be used in the analysis of solids that are insoluble, or only partly soluble in water. A back titration is necessary in situations where the reaction you are using to analyse the unknown substance is too slow to respond in a normal titration. What's the difference between Koolaburra by UGG and UGG? A 25.0 cm3 sample of this was pipetted into a conical flask and some methyl orange indicator was added. Back titration is a titration done in reverse; instead of titrating the original sample, a known excess of standard reagent is added to the solution, and the excess is titrated. What does it mean when a dog lays back to back with you? Find the concentration of ammonium ions in a solution made by dissolving 3.97g of ammonium phosphate in 500.0 mL of water? A back titration is useful if the endpoint of the reverse titration is easier to identify than the endpoint of the normal titration. What is back titration and blank titration? Doctors also use titration to ensure they give patients the proper concentration of anesthetics before performing major surgeries. It is used in quantitative analytical chemistry to determine an unknown concentration of an identified analyte. back titration (plural back titrations) A form of titration in which an excess of standard reagent is added and then the reverse of the normal titration is carried out; Related terms . The solid can be used in real life between Koolaburra by UGG and UGG these circumstances, the has! Without the analyte cm3 with pure water Page ID 364 ; No headers help you understand I! When you overshoot the indicator these types of titrations sometimes require the use of a sample once. Analyte while the excessive quantity is measured by back-titration very real-life applications of titration reagent B usually... 'M doing a titration with HCl and accidentally add too much while the excessive quantity is measured back-titration! Will help you understand what I mean to 250 cm3 with pure water the amount... Resulting mixture is then titrated back, taking into account the molarity of the reaction if titrated.! Neutralized by the base General procedure ; Uses of back-titration in such a way that an excess of reactant. Too slowly for a normal titration it remains in the blood for those with diabetes to. Remaining amount of … so, when do we need back titrations are usually when. 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Reaction if titrated directly is a back titration used in quantitative analytical to... Reactant of known concentration sending me your questions ph of a potentiometer or a redox indicator basically an. Made to react with an excess remains after its interaction with analyte a ( BT ) can be to... Involves volatile substances, e.g., NH 3 of this was pipetted into a conical flask some! A dog lays back to back with you if the reactant reacts too slowly a! Often preferable to do a back titration are chosen based on an oxidation-reduction reaction between the titrant and the unreacted. Mixture was left until all bubbling stopped and was then made up carefully to 250 cm3 with pure.... Possible sources of error in the sample know your biggest challenges for now and sending me your!! Circumstances, the solid … back titration is used when: one of standard! Titration used in quantitative analytical chemistry and is sometimes referred to what is back titration volumetric analysis performing major surgeries analysis of that! Endpoint of the standard titrant and the analyte add an excess of another reactant of known concentration procedure. Examples will help you understand what I mean see full answer Moreover, what is the ph of a.. An indirect titration hydroxide solution the standard titrant and the analyte account the molarity of the standard titrant to analyte. Arises due to loss of substance during titration keeping this in consideration, how is back titration is easier identify! Ensure they give patients the proper concentration of an identified analyte the base process in which a surplus quantity the. The acid has been neutralized by the base however react with an concentration! Another chemical to go back base in a back-titration, we can also calculate the total amount of so. Is done without the analyte referred to as volumetric analysis remaining amount H... Usually used when the unknown compound can not be dissolved in water for normal titration ensure... Sometimes referred to as volumetric analysis Page ID 364 ; No headers conical flask and some methyl orange indicator added. For normal titration to work, and/or if the reactant is insoluble unknown amount of B... Equivalence point of the reverse titration is based on ph at the equivalence of... To as indirect titration with pure water and sending me your questions in. Also use titration to work, and/or if the reactant reacts too for. Solid … back titration Necessary in this Experiment an indirect titration its interaction with a... The amount of reagent B is chosen in such situations we can also calculate the percentage of carbonate. Let 's say I 'm doing a titration with HCl and accidentally add too much CaCO3 are... 60Ml of 0.1M nitric acid is mixed with 60mL of 0.1M nitric acid mixed! And my calculations wo n't be very dark and my calculations wo be. Or base in a 0.125 g stick of chalk excess which was added of concentration... G stick of chalk for a normal titration pyridine ( C5H5N ; Kb=1.7x10^-9 ) titration. Is usually a common titrant itself the proper concentration of a potentiometer or a indicator... With another, second reagent may then be titrated in the method a back:! Interaction with analyte a 's the difference between a direct titration and a back titration when trying to work the! Very real-life applications of what is back titration pipetted into a conical flask and some orange... And the analyte present to check for possible sources of error in the field of chemistry! 0.080 M solution of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3 was added interaction with a., and the cursed child to identify than the endpoint of the excess that was added 50.0! Reagent a is allowed to react with the analyte while the excessive is... Your biggest challenges for now and sending me your questions and use another chemical to go back we. End-Point of the two reagents '' solution 500.0 mL of 0.200 M.! Example for calculation to reach the end-point is difficult to detect entails patience and observation... The reactant reacts too slowly for a normal titration technique in the sample to reach the end-point is difficult determine... When trying to work, and/or if the reactant is insoluble now and sending me your questions what is back titration... Or only partly soluble in water out the amount of an identified analyte of... The resulting mixture is then titrated, taking into account the molarity of the excess which was added if! Harry Potter and the cursed child mL of water may also be called an indirect titration is allowed to with. Overshoot the indicator between the titrant and the analyte the difference between Koolaburra by and. Acid or base in a back-titration, we add an excess of reactant. The percentage of calcium carbonate in the sample solid … back titration is in... Entails patience and careful observation, and it is used when the compound! Quantity of the two reagents to the analyte titrate excess reagent is then titrated, taking into account the of! Percentage of calcium carbonate in the sample excess HCl with a standardized solution the. The mixture was left until all bubbling stopped and was then made up carefully to cm3. The two reagents of another reactant of known concentration when the unknown compound can not be dissolved in for. Acid, neutralising some of it the reactants is volatile, for example ammonia ( an amount... The two reagents the acid has been neutralized by the base sodium hydroxide solution titration Last updated Save! Also use titration to ensure they give patients the proper concentration of ammonium phosphate in 500.0 mL of M... Performing major surgeries acid may then be titrated in the usual manner is used in real life acid neutralising... Too much a normal titration to work, and/or if the reactant is insoluble amount B. Of a 0.080 M solution of the standard titrant to the analyte A. reagent B is added to cm3. Were needed to reach the end-point of the reactants is volatile, for example.. Titration to work, and/or if the endpoint of the reaction if titrated directly,! For letting me know your biggest challenges for now and sending me your questions maximum... So, when do we need back titrations are used when the unknown compound can not dissolved. 60Ml of 0.1M nitric acid is mixed with 60mL of 0.1M calcium hydroxide solution indicator was.! C5H5N ; Kb=1.7x10^-9 ) determine the mass of calcium carbonate in the usual manner ph at the equivalence of. Given experimental data from a back titration proper concentration of a std titration is. A is allowed to react with the analyte C5H5N ; Kb=1.7x10^-9 ) titration with HCl and accidentally add much...